Bold names are group members. Italic names are visiting students.


Holmes, C.D., H.K. Nowell (2023). Response to “Comment on ‘Impacts of sugarcane fires on air quality and public health in South Florida’” Environmental Health Perspectives 131 (2), 028002, [pdf]

Pagonis, D., V. Selimovic, and 27 others including C.D. Holmes (2023) Impact of biomass burning organic aerosol volatility on smoke concentrations downwind of fires, Environmental Science and Technology, 57, 17011-17021, [pdf]

Azzarello, L., R.A. Washenfelder, M.A. Robinson, A. Franchin, C.C. Womack, C.D. Holmes, S.S. Brown, A. Middlebrook, T. Newberger, C. Sweeney, C.J. Young (2023) Characterization of water-soluble brown carbon chromophores from wildfire plumes in the wester US using size exclusion chromatography. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23, 15643-15654, [pdf]

Clifton, O. E., Schwede, D., Hogrefe, C., Bash, J. O., Bland, S., Cheung, P., and others including C.D. Holmes (2023). A single-point modeling approach for the intercomparison and evaluation of ozone dry deposition across chemical transport models (Activity 2 of AQMEII4). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23, 9911–9961, [pdf]

Lam, J.C.Y, A.P.K. Tai, J.A. Ducker, C.D. Holmes (2023). Development of an ecophysiology module in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to represent biosphere−atmosphere fluxes relevant for ozone air quality. Geoscientific Model Development, 16, 2323-2342, [pdf]

Graham, K. A., Holmes, C. D., Friedrich, G., Rauschenberg, C. D., Williams, C. R., Bottenheim, J. W., et al. (2023). Variability of atmospheric CO2 over the Arctic Ocean: Insights from the O-Buoy chemical observing network. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128, e2022JD036437. [pdf]

Warneke, C., Schwarz, J. P., Dibb, J., Kalashnikova, O., Frost, G., Al‐Saad, J., and others including C.H. Fite and C.D. Holmes (2023). Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX‐AQ). Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128 e2022JD037758, [pdf]


Pai, S. J., C. L. Heald, H. Coe, J. Brooks, M. W. Shephard, E. Dammers, J. S. Apte, G. Luo, F. Yu, C. D. Holmes, C. Venkataraman, P. Sadavarte, and K. Tibrewal (2022) Compositional Constraints are Vital for Atmospheric PM2.5 Source Attribution over India, ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 6 (10), 2432-2445, [pdf]

Saide, P. E., Thapa, L. H., Ye, X., Pagonis, D., Campuzano-Jost, P., Guo, H., Schuneman, M. L., Jimenez, J.-L., Moore, R., Wiggins, E., Winstead, E., Robinson, C., Thornhill, L., Sanchez, K., Wagner, N. L., Ahern, A., Katich, J. M., Perring, A. E., Schwarz, J. P., Lyu, M., Holmes, C. D., Hair, J. W., Fenn, M. A., and Shingler, T. J. (2022) Understanding the evolution of smoke mass extinction efficiency using field campaign measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2022GL099175, [pdf]

Tang, W. and 24 others including C.D. Holmes (2022) Effects of fire diurnal variation and plume rise on U.S. air quality during FIREX-AQ and WE-CAN based on the Multi-Scale Infrastructure for Chemistry and Aerosols (MUSICAv0) Journal of Geophysical Research 127, e2022JD036650, 10.1029/2022JD036650 [pdf]

Nowell, H.K., Wirks, C.K., Val Martin, M., van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R.V., Uejio, C.K., Holmes, C.D. (2022) Impacts of prescribed fire on public health in South Florida, Environmental Health Perspectives 130, 087004, [pdf]

Holmes, C.D. (2022) Technical note: Entrainment-limited kinetics of bimolecular reactions in clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 22, 9011–9015, [pdf]

Bourgeois, I. and 38 others including C. D. Holmes (2022) Comparison of airborne measurements of NO, NO2, HONO, NOy and CO during FIREX-AQ, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4901–4930, /10.5194/amt-15-4901-2022 [pdf]

Washenfelder, R. A., L. Azzarello, K. Ball, S. S. Brown, Z. C. J. Decker, A. Franchin, C. D. Fredrickson, K. Hayden, C. D. Holmes, A. M. Middlebrook, B. B. Palm, R. B. Pierce, D. J. Price, J. M. Roberts, M. A. Robinson, J. A. Thornton, C. C. Womack, C. J. Young (2022). Complexity in the evolution, composition, and spectroscopy of brown carbon in aircraft measurements of wildfire plumes. Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2022GL098951. [pdf]

Wong, A.Y.H., J. Geddes, J.A. Ducker, C.D. Holmes, S. Fares, A.H. Goldstein, I. Mammarella, J.W. Munger (2022) New evidence for the importance of non-stomatal pathways in ozone deposition during extreme heat and dry anomalies, Geophys. Res. Lett. 49, e2021GL095717, 10.1029/2021GL095717 [pdf]

Swanson, W. F., Holmes, C. D., Simpson, W. R., Confer, K., Marelle, L., Thomas, J. L., Jaeglé, L., Alexander, B., Zhai, S., Chen, Q., Wang, X., and Sherwen, T. (2022) Comparison of model and ground observations finds snowpack and blowing snow both contribute to Arctic tropospheric reactive bromine, Atmos. Chem. Phys., [pdf]

Jernigan, C.M., C.H. Fite, L Vereecken, M. Berkelhammer, AW Rollins, P Rickly, A Novelli, D Taraborrelli, C.D. Holmes, T.H. Bertram (2022) Efficient production of carbonyl sulfide in the low-NOx oxidation of dimethyl sulfide, Geophys. Res. Lett. 49, e2021GL096838, [pdf]


Sun, S., A.P.K. Tai, D.H.Y. Yung, A.Y.H Wong, J.A. Ducker, C.D. Holmes (2021) Influence of plant ecophysiology on ozone dry deposition: Comparing between multiplicative and photosynthesis-based dry deposition schemes and their responses to rising CO2 level. Biogeosciences 19, 1753–1776, [pdf]

Xu, L, and 50 others including C.D. Holmes (2021) Ozone chemistry in western U.S. wildfire plumes, Science Advances 7, eabl3648, [pdf]

Holmes, C.D. (2022) Technical note: Entrainment-limited kinetics of bimolecular reactions in clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 22, 9011–9015, [pdf]

Novak, G.A., C.H. Fite, C.D. Holmes, and 32 others (2021) Rapid cloud removal of dimethyl sulfide oxidation products limits SO2 production and cloud condensation nuclei production in the marine atmosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 118, 42, e2110472118, [pdf]

Wang, S., D.J. Jacob, W. Downs, S. Zhai, L. Zhu, V. Shah, C.D. Holmes, T. Sherwen, B. Alexander, M.J. Evans, S.D. Eastham, J. A. Neuman, P. R. Veres, T. K. Koenig, R. Volkamer, L. G. Huey, T. J. Bannan, C. J. Percival, B. H. Lee, J. A. Thornton (2021) Global tropospheric halogen (Cl, Br, I) chemistry and its impact on oxidants, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 21, 13973-13996, [pdf]

Galmarini, S., Makar, P., Clifton, O., Hogrefe, C., Bash, J., Bianconi, R., Bellasio, R., Bieser, J., Butler, T., Ducker, J., Flemming, J., Hozdic, A., Holmes, C., Kioutsioukis, I., Kranenburg, R., Lupascu, A., Perez-Camanyo, J. L., Pleim, J., Ryu, Y.-H., San Jose, R., Schwede, D., Silva, S., Garcia Vivanco, M., and Wolke, R. (2021) Technical Note – AQMEII4 Activity 1: Evaluation of Wet and Dry Deposition Schemes as an Integral Part of Regional-Scale Air Quality Models, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 21, 15663-15697, [pdf]

Chan, Y.-C., Evans, M.J., He, P., Holmes, C.D., Jaeglé, L., Kasibhatla, P., Liu, X.-Y., Sherwen, T., Thornton, J.A., Wang, X., Xie, Z., Zhai, S., and Alexander, B. (2021). Heterogeneous nitrate production mechanisms in intense haze events in the North China Plain. J. Geophys. Res. 126, e2021JD034688, [pdf]

Decker, Z.C.J. and 37 others including C.D. Holmes (2021) Nighttime and Daytime Dark Oxidation Chemistry in Wildfire Plumes: An Observation and Model Analysis of FIREX-AQ Aircraft Data. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 21, 16293–16317, [pdf]

Robinson, M. and 25 others including C.D. Holmes (2021) Variability and time of day dependence of ozone photochemistry in western wildfire plumes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 55, 10280–10290, [pdf]

Jacobs, N., Simpson, W. R., Graham, K. A., Holmes, C., Hase, F., Blumenstock, T., Tu, Q., Frey, M., Dubey, M. K., Parker, H. A., Wunch, D., Kivi, R., Heikkinen, P., Nothold, J., Petri, C., and Warneke, T. (2021) Spatial distributions of XCO2 seasonal cycle amplitude and phase over northern high latitude regions, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 21, 16661-16687, [pdf]


Swanson, W., Graham, K.A., Halfacre, J.W., Holmes, C.D., Shepson, P.B., Simpson, W.R. (2020) Arctic reactive bromine events occur in two distinct sets of environmental conditions: a statistical analysis of six years of observations. J. Geophys. Res. 125, e2019JD032139, [pdf]

Horowitz, H. M., Holmes, C.D., Wright, A., Sherwen, T., Wang, X., Evans, M., et al. (2020). Effects of sea salt aerosol emissions for Marine Cloud Brightening on atmospheric chemistry: Implications for radiative forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, e2019GL085838, [pdf]

Alexander, B., Tomas, S., Holmes, C.D., Fisher, J.A., Chen, Q., Evans, M.J., and Kasibhatla, P. (2020). Global inorganic nitrate production mechanisms: comparison of a global model with nitrate isotope observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 20, 3859-3877, [pdf]

Ronan, A. C., Ducker, J.A., Schnell, J.L., Holmes, C.D. (2020) Have improvements in ozone air quality reduced ozone uptake into plants? Elementa Sci. Anthro. 8, 2, [pdf]

Li, F., Zhang, X., Kondragunta, S., Schmidt, C.C., Holmes, C.D. (2020) A preliminary evaluation of GOES-16 active fire product using Landsat-8 and VIIRS active fire data and ground-based prescribed fire records. Remote Sens. Environ. 237, 111600, [pdf]

2019 and earlier

Holmes, C.D., Bertram, T. H., Confer, K. L., Ronan, A. C., Wirks, C. K., Graham, K. A., Shah, V. (2019) The role of clouds in the tropospheric NOx cycle: a new modeling approach for cloud chemistry and its global implications, Geophys. Res. Lett. 46, 4980-4990, [pdf]

Borchardt, T., Fisher, K.V., Ebling, A.M., Westrich, J.D., Xian, P., Holmes, C.D., Landing, W.M., Lipp, E.K, Wetz, M.S., Ottesen, E.A. (2019). Saharan dust deposition initiates successional patterns among marine microbes in the Western Atlantic, Limnology and Oceanography,  [pdf]

Ducker, J. A., Holmes, C. D., Keenan, T. F., Fares, S., Goldstein, A. H., Mammarella, I., Munger, J. W., and Schnell, J. (2018). Synthetic ozone deposition and stomatal uptake at flux tower sites. Biogeosciences, 15, 5395-5413. [pdf]

Nowell, H. K., Holmes, C. D., Robertson, K., Teske, C., & Hiers, J. K. (2018). A new picture of fire extent, variability, and drought interaction in prescribed fire landscapes: Insights from Florida government records. Geophysical Research Letters, 45. [pdf]

Holmes, C. D. (2018). Methane feedback on atmospheric chemistry: Methods, models, and mechanisms. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10, 1087–1099. [pdf]

Prather, M.J. & C.D. Holmes (2017) Overexplaining or underexplaining methane’s role in climate change, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 117(21) 5324–5326, [pdf]

Kaulfus, A., U.S. Nair, C.D. Holmes, W.M. Landing (2017) Mercury wet scavenging and deposition differences by precipitation type, Environ. Sci. Technol., [pdf]

Holmes, C.D., N.P. Krishnamurthy, J.M. Caffrey, W.M. Landing, E.S. Edgerton, K.R. Knapp, U.S. Nair (2016) Thunderstorms increase mercury wet deposition, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 9343-9350, [pdf]

Zhang, H., C.D. Holmes, and S. Wu (2016). Impacts of changes in climate and land use/land cover on atmospheric mercury. Atmos. Environ., 141, 230-244, [pdf]

Coburn, S., B. Dix, E. Edgerton, C.D. Holmes, D. Kinnison, Q. Liang, A. ter Schure, S. Wang, R. Volkamer (2016). Mercury oxidation from bromine chemistry in the free troposphere over the Southeastern United States. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3743-3760, [pdf]

Isaksen, I.S.A., T.K. Berntsen, S.B.Dalsøren, K. Eleftheratos, Y. Orsolini, B. Rognerud, F. Stordal, O.A. Søvde, C. Zerefos, C.D. Holmes (2014) Atmospheric ozone and methane in a changing climate. Atmosphere 5, 518-535, [pdf]

Holmes, C.D. (2014). Air pollution and forest water use. Nature 507, E1-E2, [pdf]

Heald, C. L., D. A. Ridley, J. H. Kroll, S. R. H. Barrett, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. J. Alvarado, C. D. Holmes (2014). Beyond direct radiative forcing: The case for characterizing the direct radiative effect of aerosols. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5513-5527, [pdf]

Schnell, J.L., C.D. Holmes, A. Jangam, M.J. Prather (2014). Skill in forecasting extreme ozone pollution episodes with a global atmospheric chemistry model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7721–7739, [pdf]

Holmes, C.D., M.J. Prather, G.C.M. Vinken (2014). The climate impact of ship NOx emissions: an improved estimate accounting for plume chemistry, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6801-6812, [pdf]

Prather, M. J. and C. D. Holmes (2013). A perspective on time: Loss frequencies, time scales, and lifetimes, Environ. Chem., 10, 73-79, doi:10.1071/EN13017.

Holmes, C. D., M. J. Prather, O. A. Søvde, and G. Myhre (2013) Future methane, hydroxyl, and their uncertainties: key climate and emission parameters for future predictions, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 285-302, doi:10.5194/acp-13-285-2013.

Ellis, R. A., D. J. Jacob, M. Payer, L. Zhang, C. D. Holmes, B. A. Schichtel, T. Blett, E. Porter, L. H. Pardo, and J. A. Lynch (2013). Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 9083-9095, doi:10.5194/acp-13-9083-2013.

Nair, U. S., Y. Wu, C. D. Holmes, A. Ter Schure, G. Kallos, and J. T. Walters (2013) Cloud-resolving simulations of mercury scavenging and deposition in thunderstorms, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 10143-10157, doi:10.5194/acp-13-10143-2013.

Harris, R., C. Pollman, W. Landing, D. Evans, D. Axelrad, D. Hutchinson, S.L. Morey, D. Rumbold, D. Dukhovskoy, D. Adams, K. Vijayaraghavani, C. Holmes, R. D. Atkinson, T. Myers, and E. Sunderland (2012) Mercury in the Gulf of Mexico: Sources to consumers, Environ. Res., 119, 42-52, doi:10.1016/j.envres.2012.08.001.

Costa, M.F., W. M. Landing, H. A. Kehrig, M. Barletta, C. D. Holmes, P. R. G. Barrocas, D. C. Evers, D. G. Buck, A. C. Vasconcellos, S. S. Hacon, J. C. Moreira, O. Malm (2012) Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments. Environ Res, 119, 88-100, doi:10.1016/j.envres.2012.07.008.

Søvde, A. O., M. J. Prather, I. S. A. Isaksen, T. K. Berntsen, F. Stordal, X. Zhu, C. D. Holmes, and J. Hsu (2012) The chemical transport model Oslo CTM3. Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. 5, 1561-1626, doi:10.5194/gmdd-5-1561-2012.

Müller, D., D. Wip, T. Warneke, C. D. Holmes, A. Dastoor, and J. Notholt (2012) Sources of atmospheric mercury in the tropics: continuous observations at a coastal site in Suriname. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 7391-7397, doi:10.5194/acp-12-7391-2012.

Prather, M. J., C. D. Holmes, and J. Hsu (2012) Reactive greenhouse gas scenarios: Systematic exploration of uncertainties and the role of atmospheric chemistry. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2012GL051440.

Holmes, C. D. (2012) Nature Geoscience 5, 95-96, doi:10.1038/ngeo1389.

Zhang, Y., L. Jaeglé, A. van Donkelaar, R. V. Martin, C. D. Holmes, H. M. Amos, Q. Wang, R. Talbot, F. Artz, S. Brooks, W. Luke, T. M. Holsen, D. Felton, E. K. Miller, K. D. Perry, D. Schmeltz, A. Steffen, R. Tordon, P. Weiss-Penzias, and R. Zsolway (2012) Nested-grid simulation of mercury over North America. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 6095-6111, doi:10.5194/acp-12-6095-2012.

Amos, H., D. J. Jacob, C. D. Holmes, J. A. Fisher, Q. Wang, R. M. Yantosca, E. S. Corbitt, E. Galarneau, A. P. Rutter, M. S. Gustin, A. Steffen, J. J. Schauer, J. A. Graydon, V. L. St. Louis, R. W. Talbot, E. S. Edgerton, E. M. Sunderland (2012) Gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric Hg(II) and its effect on global mercury deposition, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 591–603, doi:10.5194/acp-12-591-2012.

Corbitt, E. S., D. J. Jacob, C. D. Holmes, D. G. Streets, and E. M. Sunderland (2011) Global source-receptor relationships for mercury deposition under present-day and 2050 emissions scenarios, Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 10477-10484, doi:10.1021/es202496y.

Hezel, P. J., B. Alexander, C. M. Bitz, E. J. Steig, C.D. Holmes, X. Yang and J. Sciare (2011) Modeled methanesulfonic acid (MSA) deposition in Antarctica and its relationship to sea ice, J. Geophys. Res. 116, D23214, doi:10.1029/2011JD016383.

Holmes, C. D., Q. Tang, M. J. Prather (2011) Uncertainties in climate assessment for the case of aviation NO, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 10997-11002, doi:10.1073/pnas.1101458108.

Knapp K. R., S. Ansari, C. L. Bain, M. A. Bourassa, M. J. Dickinson, C. Funk, C. N. Helms, C. C. Hennon, C. D. Holmes, G. J. Huffman, J. P. Kossin, H.-T. Lee, A. Loew, G. Magnusdottir (2011) Globally gridded satellite (GridSat) observations for climate studies, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., doi: 10.1175/2011BAMS3039.1.

Holmes, C. D., 5 book chapters on waste gasification technology, plasma gasification, chemistry, applications, and environmental performance in From Waste to Fuel, in press.

Travnikov, O., C-J. Lin, A. Dastoor and 11 others including C. D. Holmes (2010) Global and regional modeling, chapter in Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution 2010, Part B: Mercury. Eds. N. Pirrone and T. Keating, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

Holmes, C. D., Jacob, D. J., Corbitt, E. S., Mao, J., Yang, X., Talbot, R., and Slemr, F.: Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 12037-12057, doi:10.5194/acp-10-12037-2010, 2010.

Soerensen, A.L., E.M. Sunderland, C.D. Holmes, D.J. Jacob, R.M. Yantosca, H. Skov, J.H. Christensen, and R.P. Mason, An improved global model for air-sea exchange of mercury: High concentrations over the North Atlantic, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 8574-8580, 2010

Fisher, J.A., D.J. Jacob, M.T. Purdy, M. Kopacz, P. Le Sager, C. Carouge, C.D. Holmes, R.M. Yantosca, R.L. Batchelor, K. Strong, G.S. Diskin, H.E. Fuelberg, J.S. Holloway, E.J. Hyer, W.W. McMillan, J. Warner, D.G. Streets, Q. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Wu, Source attribution and interannual variability of Arctic pollution in spring constrained by aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC) and satellite (AIRS) observations of carbon monoxide, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 977-996, 2010.

Holmes, C.D., Multiscale Models of Atmospheric Mercury: bromine chemistry, air-sea exchange, and global transport, Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2010.

Dennis, K.J., C.D. Holmes, K.Z. House, J.J. Krich, B.G. Lee, L.T. Murray, E.A. van Nierop, J. Parella, D.M. Romps, J. Rugolo, M.T. Winkler, Should the United States resume reprocessing? A pro and con, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 65(6), 30-41, 2009.

Holmes, C.D., D.J. Jacob, R.P. Mason, D.A. Jaffe, Sources and deposition of reactive gaseous mercury in the marine atmosphere, Atmospheric Environment,43, 2278-2285, 2009

S. Strode, L. Jaegle, D. A. Jaffe, P. C. Swartzendruber, N. E. Selin, C. Holmes, and R. M. Yantosca, Trans-Pacific Transport of Mercury, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D02308, 2008.

Holmes, C. D., D. J. Jacob, and X. Yang, Global lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by atomic bromine in the free troposphere, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L20808, doi:10.1029/2006GL027176, 2006

Holmes, C.D., Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy of the Forbidden M1 and E2 1283nm Transition in Thallium, B.A. Thesis, Williams College, 2003.

Galvez, E.J., M.R. Cheyne, J.B. Stewart, C.D. Holmes, and H.I. Sztul, Variable Geometric Phase Polarization Rotators for the Visible, Optics Communications 171, 7-13, 1999.

Galvez, E.J. and C.D. Holmes Geometric Phase of Optical Rotators, Journal of the Optical Society of America A 16, 1981-1985, 1999.